Water Industry News
Scarce water, decreasing costs push desalination to fore
December 19, 2004
As Californiaís population grows, more
cities are considering drinking ocean water. Declining water supplies
and advancing technology are pushing water districts all along the
California coast to consider desalination.
The idea of making fresh water from a
salty source is not new ó various countries in the Middle East use
desalination, and plants exist in California, Florida and Texas. But in
the United States, the amount of clean water produced by desalination is
tiny compared with plans for the future.
Nine desalination plants are proposed on
the shores of the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. Monterey
County is considering proposals for one that would produce about three
times as much clean water as is produced now by all the plants in the
state combined, according to a 2004 California Coastal Commission
Two are being studied close to home ó
one that would be built by the city of Santa Cruz for use during drought
years and another in Moss Landing.
While planning is under way here, the
Marin Municipal Water District is taking a more active approach. The
district will begin building a small pilot desalination plant this
This plant, which uses a process called
reverse osmosis, will test the feasibility of producing clean drinking
water from the salty, sediment-filled water of San Francisco Bay.
Marinís decision was one of necessity.
Recent dry winters have not replaced water the district has been drawing
from its local reservoir, said Rob Theisen, a general manager of the
"We find ourselves now in a bit of a
deficit," he said.
The district had intended to buy extra
water from Sonoma County Water Agency, using $37.5 million in bonds
approved by Marin voters in 1992 to build a new pipeline to carry the
water south to Marin.
But "about two years ago, it became
obvious that SCWA could not provide enough," Theisen said.
Marin officials had considered desalination more than a decade ago. In
1990, the district built and ran a small plant to test its feasibility
as a water source. The plant provided clean, good-tasting water, but it
cost much more than importing water from Sonoma.
Almost 15 years of technological advances
have made the prices much more comparable.
"With more and more individuals,
communities, even countries getting involved in desalination, the costs
have been improving," Theisen said.
Energy is the largest desalination cost,
making up one-third to one-half the price of the cleaned water,
according to the Coastal Commission report. But thatís a significant
improvement over 10 years ago. Now, the membranes used to filter water
need much less energy, and techniques have been developed to recycle
some of the energy used in filtering.
In the past decade, because the price of
buying fresh water has increased and the price of cleaning salty water
has decreased, desalinated water has gone from costing about 300 times
as much as imported water to just 1.5 to two times as much.
The smaller increase in price over
imported water is something that Marin, and many other water districts,
are willing to consider to be assured a consistent, reliable water
For its second pilot plant, Marin
approved $1.2 million to build on a 40-by-80-foot plot near the
Richmond-San Rafael Bridge. The plant will run for nine months beginning
next year, testing the technology and providing the district a small
amount of clean water.
Making bay water clean enough to drink is a multi-step process.
First, the water must pass through a
filtering system to remove any small floating particles. These bits of
dirt and debris must be removed from the water before it gets to the
finer levels of purification, otherwise "itís kind of like taking
a water treatment process and putting golf balls in it," Theisen
Next comes reverse osmosis, which cleans
water on a molecular level. The water is pumped up to a very high
pressure, "probably 20 times what you have in your pipes at
home," said Mike Armstrong, general manager of the Marina Coast
Water District, which maintained its own small desalination plant until
the main motor broke last year. The pressure needed for reverse osmosis
is about the same amount of force you would feel if you tried to balance
an adult elephant on the palm on one hand.
At such a high pressure, water can be
pushed through a membrane with holes so tiny only water molecules can
fit. About half the water gets forced though, and the other half is used
to wash away anything too big to get across the membrane. At the Marin
plant, some of the newly cleaned water will be pushed through the
reverse osmosis system a second time to remove any tiny amounts salt
that managed to get through the first time.
Reverse osmosis "produces some of
the cleanest, best water youíve ever seen, just because it removes
just about anything and everything," Armstrong said. It actually
removes so much that the water becomes slightly acidic, making it taste
"pretty flat," he said. That is corrected by adding lime and
carbon dioxide, and chlorine to disinfect the final product.
About 90 percent of people who
taste-tested the desalinated water from the Marin plant preferred it
over fresh water from a local reservoir, Theisen said.
As good as the water might taste, some people have raised questions
about the health and environmental impacts of the proposed plant.
The state Office of Environmental Health
Hazard Assessment has advised against frequent consumption of fish from
San Francisco Bay because of pollutants such as mercury and DDT in the
water. This raises concerns that desalinated water also will be
polluted. But the plant does not draw its water from the bottom, where
most pollutants are concentrated, Theisen said, and the filtering
processes would remove any pollutants that did get drawn into the plant.
Another concern is the plant produces
wastewater twice as salty as normal bay water, which some fear would
kill life in the bay.
But the Marin district has worked out a
plan to mix desalination wastewater, which is too salty, with effluent
from a nearby sewage treatment plant, which is too fresh. The
combination will be released into the bay a mile from shore.
In fact, Marin water officials hope that
a full-size desalination plant would actually help protect the
environment by preserving the water level of Lagunitas Creek, which
Theisen calls one of the best nurseries for salmon on the West Coast.
A drawback to desalination is the cost. A
dollarís worth of water from a freshwater reservoir would probably
cost about $1.50 to extract from the bay, said Theisen. But if
desalinated water accounts for only one-tenth the total supply, as
planned in Marin, customers would see an increase of only about five
cents for every dollar of their bill.
At least some customers would be willing
to accept that increase.
"Iíd be willing to pay a little
more money for good-quality water," said Marin real-estate agent
Barry Crotty, "and Iíd be less inclined to waste it if it cost me
Success at Marinís trial plant would
pave the way for a much larger plant that ideally would be designed,
approved and built by 2008, Theisen said. The plant would provide as
much as 10 million gallons a day, enough to keep 11,000 households
happily drinking, showering, and watering their lawns for as long as the
Pacific Ocean stays in existence.
Contact Elise Kleeman at firstname.lastname@example.org